For millions of working moms, these obligations amount to “second shifts” that never get tallied into any nation’s GDP — and the coronavirus pandemic has exacerbated matters.

“Even though men have certainly stepped up to the plate, whenever there’s extra work to be done, it tends to fall on moms because we’re caregivers and we want to make sure that everyone is happy,” psychotherapist Dr. Robi Ludwig told TODAY Parents. “Women really do take on that dual role even when they’re working outside of the house and especially when they’re in the house. …

“It’s like the 1950s meets 2020.”