The four main bottlenecks to accelerating vaccinations are:

Authorization: You can’t receive a vaccine that the FDA hasn’t authorized or approved.

Supply: Even with several vaccines authorized, you can’t get vaccinated if there’s a critical shortage of shots.

Distribution: Even with lots of vaccines available, we still need to distribute them to states, cities, hospitals, and clinics and create eligibility rules that people can understand.

Demand: Even if the public-health establishment does everything right, that won’t matter if Americans don’t want a vaccine.

How do we unblock these bottlenecks? Based on conversations with several experts and scientists, here are some big ideas to resolve each problem.