According to experts, these leaders may feel that there is no upside to offering quick congratulations to Biden.

“They recognise Trump will wield influence with the Republican Party, and they know he is quick to anger and carries a grudge,” said Michael Miller, an associate professor in the nationalism studies department at Central European University in the Hungarian capital, Budapest. “Right now, they don’t see anything to be gained by congratulating Biden and accepting Trump’s defeat.”

Russia in particular has an interest in prolonging doubt and instability in the U.S., viewing themselves as challengers to U.S. hegemony, according to Miller.