Aides have expressed acute frustration over what many see as a slapdash legal effort, complaining that—even though Mr. Trump spent months telegraphing his intent to fight the election outcome in the courts—there wasn’t enough planning ahead of Election Day and has been little follow-through on decisions made this week. For days after the election, advisers said they didn’t know who was in charge of the strategy…

Advisers have expressed dismay that figures such as Rudy Giuliani, the president’s personal attorney whose actions in Ukraine helped lead to the president’s impeachment last year, were the public face of the effort. Mr. Giuliani, asked to respond, said in a text message: “Maybe because,” then added three hours later: “They’re insecure.” Justin Clark, the deputy campaign manager, is the campaign’s top attorney.

Others have complained that a legal strategy wasn’t ready on election night, and put the blame on Jared Kushner, the president’s son-in-law who has been overseeing the campaign from his position as a senior adviser at the White House, and top campaign officials. An administration official said Mr. Kushner left the management of legal strategy to other officials ahead of the election.

Mr. Trump’s strategy to challenge election results has relied more on public relations than legal tactics, according to campaign aides and political advisers.