The lack of marching orders from Mr. Meadows was not exactly a surprise to many administration officials. They have long expressed frustration at how he operates, neglecting to relay messages to the president from agency leaders who ask to speak with him and giving off the impression that he is focused solely on trying to score a legislative victory for himself to please the boss.

Some Trump allies on Capitol Hill said it was “disturbing” to see how Mr. Meadows was handling the current crisis. And administration officials were left puzzling over his strategy or motives for delivering information about Mr. Trump’s health…

Adding to unease about the work environment in the West Wing was the fact that Ms. McEnany said on Sunday that there were no plans to reveal how many staff members had tested positive because of “privacy concerns.”

Later on Sunday evening, the White House management office sent out the first campuswide note since Mr. Trump’s positive test. The guidance reiterated reminders about symptoms and when employees should stay home, and included an unusual addendum noting that staff members who thought they should be teleworking should discuss it with their supervisors.