The current period of national unrest and racial turmoil began in Minnesota.

It was in Minneapolis that George Floyd died in police custody, sparking protests and a renewed emphasis on criminal-justice reform nationwide. It was in Minneapolis that protests first descended into riots, with other cities soon following suit. Yet while most of the country will eventually move on from this turmoil, Minneapolis will be among the cities facing the greatest difficulty in recovering from the financial devastation that the riots left behind. The economic fallout will haunt it for decades to come.

To understand why, it’s worth revisiting just how much damage was done to the Twin Cities after Floyd’s death.