“Just when the world was trying to come together over an unprecedented health crisis, it’s all splintered apart,” said Lawrence O. Gostin, the director of the O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University. “This kind of disruption and setting global health on fire by the Trump administration is going to cost lives.”

Virginie Battu-Henriksson, a spokeswoman for the European Commission, said it was “the time for solidarity, not the time for finger pointing.” Valentina I. Matviyenko, the speaker of the upper house of the Russian Parliament, said Moscow would stand behind the W.H.O., adding that there was “certainly no reason to perform a mock trial or any kinds of investigations” or to “destroy the useful things that have been accumulated for decades by mankind.”

The resolution approved by W.H.O. members without objection promised a “comprehensive evaluation” of the organization that would review “experience gained and lessons learned from the W.H.O.-coordinated international health response to Covid-19.”