Second, many businesses will not regain the same vigor because they are dependent on strong consumer demand. Inevitably, some Americans will remain unemployed longer than others. Those who go back to work quickly are still likely to emerge from their experience of sheltering at home with less ability to resume spending at the same levels. Large numbers of households are falling behind on major debt obligations, such as rent or mortgage payments, auto loans, and credit card bills. Even those who return to pre-crisis jobs will have to cope with the burden of this overhanging debt, which will constrain their discretionary spending for months or even years to come.

Third, the wrenching experience of the covid-19 pandemic is likely to change many consumers’ behavior. As happened in the Great Depression, this crisis has reminded people of the fragility of their financial situations, making them more cautious about borrowing and spending. Social changes, too, are likely to linger. Until people feel sure about an effective vaccine and manageable treatment for the virus, they may be reluctant to travel or even to circulate as widely as they used to, producing lower levels of economic activity overall.