Before he introduced a resolution laying out the final days of the impeachment trial, Senator Mitch McConnell placed a call to President Trump to run it by him, according to a person with knowledge of the call.

Mr. McConnell, Republican of Kentucky and the majority leader, shared the details of the resolution with Mr. Trump, who gave his approval, according to the person, speaking on the condition of anonymity to discuss the conversation.

The resolution sets up four hours of closing arguments for Monday and a final vote on the articles of impeachment on Wednesday afternoon, after Mr. Trump delivers his State of the Union address.