When anyone else in the executive branch — be it Deep State, Shallow State or anywhere in between — attempts to undermine and thwart the president’s executive power, such action is not merely insubordinate or morally problematic. It is outright unconstitutional.

And as law professors Saikrishna Prakash and Michael Ramsey explicated in a 2001 Yale Law Journal article on the topic, the executive power incontrovertibly includes within its ambit all “residual” foreign-affairs powers, meaning all foreign-affairs powers not legislatively vested in Congress in Article I, Section 8.

To be sure, it is appropriate for top-level national-security advisers to offer substantive opinions to the president. But Vindman has testified that he never even directly communicated with Trump.

If Vindman actually attempted to deliberately thwart or undermine the duly enacted president’s foreign-policy agenda, then he was attempting to unconstitutionally carry out the executive power that the Constitution of the United States vests in the president of United States alone.