The call to abandon due process on Sunday in some ways echoed part of his executive order, which seeks to detain immigrant families indefinitely, a stance that courts have said violates the rights of the children.

But on Sunday, Mr. Trump went further, saying no judges at all were needed to process immigration cases.

“Our system is a mockery to good immigration policy and Law and Order,” Mr. Trump said, adding, “Our Immigration policy, laughed at all over the world, is very unfair to all of those people who have gone through the system legally and are waiting on line for years! Immigration must be based on merit.”