Why it matters: The U.S. has held a presence in many of these countries for years, but the latest Burson-Marsteller Arab Youth Survey reveals a dramatic shift in how youth in the region view America: 57% of those surveyed this year see the U.S. as an enemy, and 35% consider the U.S. an ally. That’s almost a complete reversal of the numbers from 2016.

The Trump factor: 73% of Arab youth said President Trump’s election has had a negative impact on their countries. And more youth trust Russia than the United States, as the Kremlin builds up its presence in the region.