From 2001 through 2008, Iraq was first or second on the list of countries viewed as enemies of the U.S. In 2001, 38% named Iraq as the greatest U.S. enemy, which until this year was the highest proportion of responses any country had received. Notably, the question was not asked from 2002 through 2004 while the U.S. was preparing for a conflict with, and then went to war with, Iraq.

The only other time North Korea topped the list was in 2005 when it tied with Iraq. Since then, North Korea, Iran and China have consistently ranked high on the list of U.S. enemies. While Iran and North Korea are both military threats to the U.S., China has presented primarily an economic threat.