Interestingly, Pasek and Cook found that the feeling of religious threat for Muslims was high regardless of religiosity, an effect they believe is compounded by race, as most Muslims in America are not white. They suggest it is worthy of further research.

It is an idea with merit, but demographer Besheer Mohamed, Senior Researcher at Pew Research Center, sees it as needing more nuance.

“There are definitely important differences among Muslims other than level of religiosity,” adds Mohamed. “Race is an important one, but is complicated by the fact that so many Muslims are foreign born. For example, 96% of US born black Muslims say there is a lot of discrimination against Muslims, compared with 65% of all foreign born Muslims. Even though 55% of foreign born Muslims are non-white.”