The U.S. doesn’t just have a Putin problem. It has a Russia problem.

The two countries have butted heads since the U.S. emerged as a great power in the late 19th century and began to compete with the Russian Empire for influence in Manchuria.

Global developments may have shifted the specifics of the rivalry, and technological advances may have increased its risks. But the areas of disagreement have stayed have constant: values, zones of influence, the principles of world order.

Even Russian interference in U.S. domestic affairs is nothing new. It was a persistent threat during the 74 years of Soviet communist rule.