The Fall of the Empire: The Americanization of English analyzed 15 million digitized books published between 1800 and 2010, as well as over 30 million geolocated tweets. The authors searched for differences in vocabulary (eggplant v aubergine, or liquor store v off-licence) as well as differences in spelling (estrogen v oestrogen, or travelling v traveling).
Engel is not anti-American and it is not linguistic purity he’s after, but rather difference. How will that pan out going forward?
The findings varied by geography. In Madrid, Paris, Amsterdam, Berlin and other western European cities, American English has significant influence on vocabulary even though British English has historically been the norm. By contrast, in Commonwealth countries such as South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, sweets are preferred to candy.
In much of Europe, American vocabulary is even more influential than American spelling.