Charles Asher Small, the director of the Institute for the Study of Global Anti-Semitism and Policy, said the August 5 letter written on Erdogan’s behalf is also anti-Semitic, as it blames Jews collectively for the actions of Israel.

Erdogan “is legitimizing the targeting of Jewish people in Turkey and around the world as a result of Israel’s war with Hamas, not the Israel-Palestinian war, as he claims,” said Small. “This is a clear example of anti-Semitism, according to the European Union’s working definition of anti-Semitism.”

That definition holds that blaming Jews collectively for the actions of Israel is a form of anti-Semitism.