Moualem said Assad’s proposal earlier this month for a new parliament and constitution was the only way forward out of the conflict. He reiterated the embattled leader’s argument that only “nationalistic opposition” could participate.

Their definition excludes the armed opposition or any group that supports intervention in Syria’s conflict, even though they are now the driving force of the rebel movement.

The opposition, for its part, has rejected anything but Assad’s removal.

International talks in Geneva last June, led by Brahimi, proposed a transitional government but left open Assad’s future. The proposal foundered after opposition backers like the United States insisted Assad not play a role, while Russia, Assad’s main arms supplier, said foreign powers should not impose restrictions on the transition.