RESULTS: The death rate for childless women was 4 times higher than for women who had given birth. Women who had adopted had two-thirds the likelihood of dying prematurely. The death rate was also approximately halved for both biological and adoptive fathers. When the researchers controlled for things like age, education level, and income, these differences remained significant.

All of the deaths were attributed to circulatory disease, cancers, or accidents.

CONCLUSION: While unable to prove causation, the authors concluded that mortality rates are higher in people who don’t have children.