The phrase “Nature’s God” is not a product of traditional religious denominations, but is generally associated with 18th-century Deism. That philosophy centered on what has been called “natural theology,” a belief that while a “Creator” started the universe and established the laws of nature, the modern world saw no divine intervention or miracles.

The most famous religious phrase in the Declaration—that people are “endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights”—was not included in Jefferson’s original draft. He had written that people derive inherent rights form their “equal Creation.” The iconic language was added by a small committee, including Benjamin Franklin and John Adams. …

Often overlooked in discussing the Declaration of Independence are two more religious references, both added to its closing paragraph by other delegates in the Continental Congress. The delegates described themselves as “appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions,” and they affirmed their “firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence.”