Hawaii jury considers state’s first death penalty case for soldier

posted at 10:01 am on May 24, 2014 by Jazz Shaw

There’s something unusual going on in a courtroom out in Hawaii this month, and it has to do with the death penalty. What makes this case somewhat unique is the fact that The Aloha State banned capital punishment in 1957, before they even achieved full statehood status. This case, however, may transcend such restrictions because it deals with a former US soldier and a horrific crime which took place on a federal military base.

Jurors in Hawaii are set to begin considering whether a former soldier should be sentenced to death or life in prison for killing his 5-year-old daughter.

Jurors deliberated for about a day before announcing a verdict Friday finding Naeem Williams eligible for the death penalty in the first capital case in the history of Hawaii’s statehood.

The jury returns to court on Wednesday to begin hearing testimony about whether he will be sentenced to death or life in prison with no possibility for release.

That phase in the case will include a new round of opening statements and deliberations. The defense is expected to present witnesses testifying about Williams as a person while the prosecution is expected to continue arguing that the crime was especially heinous and deserving of the death penalty.

Unlike other capital punishment cases involving soldiers, such as those of Nidal Hassan and Ivan Lopez, the situation with Naeem Williams did not involve a mass attack by an insane lunatic or terrorism related to Islamic extremism. And while the former were certainly staggeringly evil, Williams’ case may, on some level be worse. This case dealt with the sustained abuse and eventual murder of their little girl, Talia, by Williams and the girl’s stepmother (who is also facing 20 years in jail). I will not paste in or repeat here the sickening details of the suffering this little girl endured at the hands of her supposed protectors, but I will warn you that if you follow the link and read them for yourself you may regret it. One can only hope and pray that the child has finally found peace in Heaven after such a short and horrifying life.

Since this nightmare took place on the military base grounds, the option for the death penalty is on the table and jurors are now considering it. Opponents of capital punishment are already raising questions as to whether or not this should be allowed to take place in Hawaii, which forbids the death penalty. But the law seems to be clear in situations like this, and federal law will take precedence over state rules. The question is whether or not the selected members of the jury are also staunch opponents of the death penalty and how much their decision might be impacted by media reports of the recent incident in Oklahoma.

If they eschew the death penalty, Williams is almost certainly looking at life behind bars without the possibility of parole. But reading the reports of what happened to that little girl, I think that is a far kinder fate than he deserves.


Related Posts:

Breaking on Hot Air

Blowback

Note from Hot Air management: This section is for comments from Hot Air's community of registered readers. Please don't assume that Hot Air management agrees with or otherwise endorses any particular comment just because we let it stand. A reminder: Anyone who fails to comply with our terms of use may lose their posting privilege.

Trackbacks/Pings

Trackback URL

Comments

Can’t bring myself to read the details….Hope he pays in hell.

Indianatime on May 24, 2014 at 10:15 AM

Well, it is significant that the jury found he was eligible. Why would the jurors do that if they didn’t intend to fry him?

platypus on May 24, 2014 at 10:18 AM

I don’t understand how death penalty opponents in Hawaii can change their argument against it in this case without completely accepting pro DP reasoning.

Dongemaharu on May 24, 2014 at 10:19 AM

I don’t understand how death penalty opponents in Hawaii can change their argument against it in this case without completely accepting pro DP reasoning.

Dongemaharu on May 24, 2014 at 10:19 AM

Then you don’t understand leftists. All they need is emotion, followed by a cacophony of protest. Bingo – they are right and you are a racist etc.

Back to illogic 101 with you. :)

platypus on May 24, 2014 at 10:24 AM

Can’t bring myself to read the details….Hope he pays in hell.

Indianatime on May 24, 2014 at 10:15 AM

Read the details, you made the right choice. The opponents of the death penalty will argue that it’s cruel and unusual, and not a deterrent to crime. To them I say, that the death penalty is not supposed to be a deterrent. It’s a punishment, and in this case a very fitting one. Sadly by law they have to be done humanely. This is something he doesn’t deserve. Hope to see him here in Indiana real soon.

MrsGsBoyTommy on May 24, 2014 at 10:26 AM

It doesn’t matter, if they give him the death penalty by the time they go through the appeals process it will be life in prison. Even if they win every court battle.

Cindy Munford on May 24, 2014 at 10:29 AM

Unless a state has murder of a child as a special circumstance, too many people get away with life instead of death who really deserve it. They deserve it because not only did they commit first degree murder but the autopsies usually reveal that the kid has been systematically abused over many months or even years.

Blake on May 24, 2014 at 10:31 AM

“…stomping on her until bone cracked…dealt a blow so hard it left knuckle imprints on her chest…he beat the girl that day partly because of toothpaste she spit onto the bathroom sink…”

A five year old girl.

In my opinion, death is too kind a punishment for this monster.

socalcon on May 24, 2014 at 10:42 AM

socalcon on May 24, 2014 at 10:42 AM

Sorry, I suppose nowadays, it’d be appropriate for a ‘trigger warming’ before that post.

These stories getting my adrenaline pumping. My nieces were physically abused by my ex-brother-in-law, their father. The elder sustained a broken arm. Four years later, my sister gained the courage (suppressed her guilt?) to reveal to the family his abuse and the reason behind their divorce and his subsequent fleeing to Arizona. After the ‘reveal’, I apologized in advance to my sister for any and all actions that I’d take against this lame excuse for a man, should I ever meet up with him.

Today, I have evolved some. I have eliminated the ‘punch in the nose’ option. Still toying with others.

His 5 and a half months in jail and three year probation for molesting a 4 year old AZ girl, notwithstanding.

socalcon on May 24, 2014 at 10:56 AM

Yet this animal and his wife were not actually evil, just animals. They were responding to frustrations in their lives by taking it out on a weaker being in their power. That is what animals do. Everything from beetles to chimpanzees do it.

You’ve done it, just not so horrifically, because you aren’t just an animal. You stop yourself before you break laws or do severe damage to your self image as a decent human being. But we all behave badly under pressure, in one way or another. Pressure tests our character. It tests our humanity. We find out where the cracks are, and we work to fix them.

These animals failed the test. Hideously. The pressure was minor and their behavior was horrific. They are just animals. They have no human character at all, or they would kill themselves now. They are dangerous, more dangerous than any rabid dog or man eating tiger. They should be put down.

Yet even with all of this, they are not evil. Evil are the people who think society would be doing something immoral to put these animals down.

Evil is not an action. It is a philosophical outlook followed by actions based on that evil philosophical outlook.

These animals were not engaging in the deployment of an evil philosophical outlook. They were just doing what animals do.

fadetogray on May 24, 2014 at 11:05 AM

I’m sorry, Jazz, but this is a VERY confusing post.

What’s the issue here? This scumbucket isn’t being tried in a Hawaii state court. He’s being tried in the federal system. The state of Hawaii has nothing to do with the prosecution. This happens all the time. It doesn’t matter that the territory banned the DP in 1957. The federal government sure didn’t.

Having said that, this POS needs to fry. I was living in Hawaii at the time this happened. Horrible case. Pretty sure it all happened on the Army base at Schofield.

Rest in peace, Talia.

NavyMustang on May 24, 2014 at 11:07 AM

Having a low IQ is no excuse for the brutality this POS inflicted on his defenseless child.

I don’t care what happens to him. Karma is going to find him, either way.

AZCoyote on May 24, 2014 at 11:10 AM

If they could kill this guy quickly I could get on board but it will take decades to administer the death penalty.

Cindy Munford on May 24, 2014 at 11:10 AM

Having a low IQ is no excuse for the brutality this POS inflicted on his defenseless child. …..

AZCoyote on May 24, 2014 at 11:10 AM

I strongly agree. Every time I hear this kind of argument I wonder if they understand how badly they are insulting the vast majority of low IQ people who do not behave like vicious animals.

The vast majority of dogs behave better than these people did. What is a dog’s IQ?

fadetogray on May 24, 2014 at 11:18 AM

If they eschew the death penalty, Williams is almost certainly looking at life behind bars without the possibility of parole.

In a federal prison he might live out a natural life span.

If he ended up in a state pen in the general population he might not last a year.

farsighted on May 24, 2014 at 11:25 AM

Please don’t use that picture of that pig.

Use a more unflattering one.

bluegill on May 24, 2014 at 11:26 AM

I hate when the only things I can think of to say would probably be ban-worthy. But suffice it to say I’d certainly support the most cruel and unusual punishment imaginable for this guy.

Harbingeing on May 24, 2014 at 11:32 AM

The state failed here too. Here in California, there are laws requiring educators who believe a child is being abused to report that fact to the authorities. What happened for Talia in Hawaii?

And, finally, why did it take nine years for this case to be brought?

unclesmrgol on May 24, 2014 at 11:42 AM

I strongly agree. Every time I hear this kind of argument I wonder if they understand how badly they are insulting the vast majority of low IQ people who do not behave like vicious animals.

The vast majority of dogs behave better than these people did. What is a dog’s IQ?

fadetogray on May 24, 2014 at 11:18 AM

A friend has an IQ below 90. When frustrated with her children she has yelled at them and on occasion thrown a dry dishtowel at them. What this monster did has nothing to do with IQ and everything to do with humanity or lack thereof.

talking_mouse on May 24, 2014 at 11:46 AM

The opponents of the death penalty will argue that it’s cruel and unusual, and not a deterrent to crime. To them I say, that the death penalty is not supposed to be a deterrent. It’s a punishment, and in this case a very fitting one.
MrsGsBoyTommy on May 24, 2014 at 10:26 AM

Exactly. This is what you get when every other concept is included but the concept of justice is thrown out – of the justice system.

Cleombrotus on May 24, 2014 at 11:47 AM

The opponents of the death penalty will argue that it’s cruel and unusual, and not a deterrent to crime. To them I say, that the death penalty is not supposed to be a deterrent. It’s a punishment, and in this case a very fitting one.
MrsGsBoyTommy on May 24, 2014 at 10:26 AM

That ‘not a deterrent’ argument is filled with logical fallacies.

It is obvious that if the penalty for speeding was death there would be a lot less speeding. So yes, the death penalty can be a deterrent for some people.

And if the death penalty doesn’t deter these rabid beasts from murdering people and robbing them of their most precious possession, nothing will deter them. So what do you do with people who cannot be deterred by any penalty?

farsighted on May 24, 2014 at 11:57 AM

Can you imagine being on this jury?
I’d lose it, I’d scream at them.

Tard on May 24, 2014 at 11:58 AM

How grossly hypocritical when you consider some of these Aloha State useful idiots are staunch proaborts in a delusional la la land pretending it’s OK as long as you “only” do it to the unborn. Sick perverts worse that Williams on the order of the 50 million+ butchered since Blackmun’s/Warren’s lawless, fascist Roe obscenity only the evil and the fool fail to despise and oppose.

russedav on May 24, 2014 at 12:07 PM

How grossly hypocritical when you consider some of these Aloha State useful idiots are staunch proaborts in a delusional la la land pretending it’s OK as long as you “only” do it to the unborn. Sick perverts worse that Williams on the order of the 50 million+ butchered since Blackmun’s/Warren’s lawless, fascist Roe obscenity only the evil and the fool fail to despise and oppose.
PS
God’s still in control and most effectively ordained George Tiller to be put to death and other proaborts will be no more successful at evading the death sentence, either here or in eternity in hell, prayerfully hoping they will receive His grace to repent of their sins and be saved from all that by trusing in Jesus as their Lord and Savior and sole treasure of faith (see the free pdf book “Desiring God” at http://www.desiringGod.org), as God designs, thank God.

russedav on May 24, 2014 at 12:11 PM

I nominate this douche for a “botched” execution.

HondaV65 on May 24, 2014 at 12:13 PM

Exactly. This is what you get when every other concept is included but the concept of justice is thrown out – of the justice system.

Cleombrotus on May 24, 2014 at 11:47 AM

Death penalty opponents think it’s okay for the state to fine people who steal or destroy other people’s property, in essence taking their property away from them as punishment.

But suddenly that logic is invalid when what is robbed from someone is their life and earthly existence.

These people do not know what justice is. They care more about the murderer than about the murdered and everyone who knew and loved them.

farsighted on May 24, 2014 at 12:19 PM

HondaV65 on May 24, 2014 at 12:13 PM

Could I watch? Please?

avagreen on May 24, 2014 at 12:36 PM

I can’t read it. I’ll take Allah’s word for it. I’ve had fully enough of this crap. I don’t favor capital punishment but how do we attempt to balance the scales of justice here in this life? Ultimately this man will face God in a likely horrifying encounter. But how do we maintain a decent society when confronted by monsters?

Mason on May 24, 2014 at 12:52 PM

Actually, stories like this need to be front and center on every news paper and evening news program, it would completely take any momentum the anti-death, anti-justice group gains from media fawning.

Beating a five year old child to death is beyond monstrous.

How do we justify giving the step mother only 20 years?

Rode Werk on May 24, 2014 at 1:21 PM

Thanks for the warning, Jazz. I think I’ll let it go. I’m STILL haunted by the details of the James Bulger case from Liverpool.

DrZin on May 24, 2014 at 1:35 PM

Jazz, you really need to write this post better. You keep writing as if this is a Hawaiian case – it is a federal case. It doesn’t matter if Hawaii has the death penalty or not, since the federal government does. They can make a fuss about not killing him in Hawaii, but he will be executed on federal property, so they don’t have a damn thing to say about that either. There is nothing about “federal law will take precedence over state rules” involved in this, since he isn’t being tried for a state crime. His trial and sentence are in the jurisdiction in which he was charged with the crime.

GWB on May 24, 2014 at 2:33 PM

I’m sorry, Jazz, but this is a VERY confusing post.

What’s the issue here? This scumbucket isn’t being tried in a Hawaii state court. He’s being tried in the federal system. The state of Hawaii has nothing to do with the prosecution. This happens all the time. It doesn’t matter that the territory banned the DP in 1957. The federal government sure didn’t.

Having said that, this POS needs to fry. I was living in Hawaii at the time this happened. Horrible case. Pretty sure it all happened on the Army base at Schofield.

Rest in peace, Talia.

NavyMustang on May 24, 2014 at 11:07 AM

I think the fear is that a jury in Hawaii, a state so against the death penalty, might refuse to give him the death penalty even in a federal trial.

I doubt it will be that big of a problem, though. It’s usually the elites that are against the death penalty. There’s no death penalty in Europe, but most Europeans don’t have a problem with it. Just the elites.

There Goes the Neighborhood on May 24, 2014 at 2:36 PM

They will give him life, ironically just the opposite of what he and his witch gave that poor child. If they actually wanted the death penalty they would have filed for a change of venue … ‘course maybe they did and were refused. Not enough details… but, Barky’s “Birth” state will give him life.

I don’t understand the low IQ defense. Is this the John Kerry “stupid people” have to go into the military defense? I’m a former soldier myself, never met anybody dumb enough to think abusing a child was alright, okey dokey and carry on.

Left to me the State wouldn’t have to debate. The deed would have already been done and there would be no remorse in my soul.

NiteOwl on May 24, 2014 at 3:09 PM

The leftist Dems, socialists, etc. do not believe in the death penalty because the murdered victim is gone. (same logic for abortion – if the fetus is not alive, then no one has been murdered). If one does not believe in being held accountable for life behavior after death, it is very easy to come to a conclusion that the death penalty is wrong. In essence, you live as long as possible, no matter what.

When one believes in accountability after human death for all of life’s actions, the death penalty is no longer so “wrong” but rather a way to protect others from those who will not or cannot control their behavior in this life and resort to murder.

MN J on May 24, 2014 at 4:14 PM

Yet this animal and his wife were not actually evil, just animals. They were responding to frustrations in their lives by taking it out on a weaker being in their power. That is what animals do. Everything from beetles to chimpanzees do it…

fadetogray

They were and continue to be evil! Frustrations? Welcome to parenting.

Animals act on instinct. Humans act on emotions…one does not equal the other.

Gothguy on May 24, 2014 at 4:17 PM

These are always good for laughs:

http://gawker.com/letters-from-death-row-willie-tyrone-trottie-texas-in-1580614987/all

Love how he complains Texas is going to “murder-cute” him.

Blake on May 24, 2014 at 4:40 PM

Animals act on instinct. Humans act on emotions…one does not equal the other.

Gothguy on May 24, 2014 at 4:17 PM

Animals have emotions. Emotions are what inform their instincts, just as they do in humans. What animals do not have that humans do have is the willingness to choose to pull up sharply against the emotions and choose to act according to their humanity instead.

We do that all of the time. It is what makes civilized societies possible.

These kinds of creatures that look like people, but are plainly not, are really animals, and they should be dealt with as such. They have language and human capacities for destruction, so they are more dangerous than any other kind of animal. Clearly, they need to be put down. They are monsters.

We all really know this about these kinds of vicious animals. That is why most of us who recognize the true horror of what they have done nevertheless oppose their being held fully accountable for what they have done, which would mean putting them through what they did to their victims.

We don’t do that with animals that kill humans. We just put them down.

They aren’t evil any more than a rabid dog or a man eating tiger is evil. The evil people are the people who let the animals think that behavior would not, and, even worse, should not, immediately result in their expulsion from the human race.

When the animal was punching that child with its fists, day after day, it never crossed its vicious little animal mind that there would be a merciless just revenge for its acts coming swiftly against it.

Because revenge is mean. The people who are actually evil are the ones who told the animal it didn’t have to worry about righteous vengeance hunting it down and killing it for what it was doing to that helpless child.

fadetogray on May 24, 2014 at 6:52 PM

fadetogray,

I’m pretty much with you until the last bit.

Punishing this animal isn’t revenge. It is retribution, and there is a vast, unassailable gap between the two. Revenge has, as its only motive, delivery of equivalent pain, without concern for justice, righteousness, or any respect to the appropriate view of the relation between aggressor and victim. It makes the original aggressor the same kind of victim, usually by the same method. Revenge is motivated only by emotion, and there is no room for that in a society driven by law.

The perpetrator does not deserve elevation to victim status in any manner. Retribution is punishment and payment for misbehavior. In this case, punishment is denial of liberty, payment is denial of continued existence.

Fry him. Hey, there’s a great idea, a human sized fry-cooker. It’s guaranteed against malfunction, nobody could survive it. It’s also guaranteed to induce the kind of end-of-life suffering which is due each and every criminal who has earned a death penalty.

Freelancer on May 24, 2014 at 7:15 PM

So what if they do decide to do so…he’ll still be on death row 20 years from now anyway.

Dr. ZhivBlago on May 24, 2014 at 7:28 PM

Baby killers don’t fare well in prison. Most convicts have some standards of decency when it comes to crimes against children.

GarandFan on May 24, 2014 at 11:59 PM

Revenge has, as its only motive, delivery of equivalent pain, without concern for justice, righteousness, or any respect to the appropriate view of the relation between aggressor and victim.

Freelancer on May 24, 2014 at 7:15 PM

There is just revenge and there is unjust revenge. We defer acting on our just thirst for vengeance to the society, for it to decide if it is just or not, because we need an umpire to determine the facts to the satisfaction of the rest of society so that endless feuding doesn’t result. But a thirst for vengeance is just or not regardless what the society determines. We hope society gets it right, and we are forced by the law to accept its determination, but that does not make it so except in the eyes of brainless sheep.

Society doesn’t want us to remember that reality, and it doesn’t want us to become enraged when it fails to give us just vengeance. It wants us not just to bow to the determination of the state, it wants us to be sheep and to act like we like it.

Your attempt to use of the word ‘retribution’ instead does nothing to fix the problem I was addressing. Our society has decided all thirst for just revenge or retribution is ‘bad.’ You are to be patted on your head and told to go back to living your lives without regard to whether or not the society behaves in a just and honorable manner in dealing with those who horribly wronged you or your loved ones or your fellow citizens.

When we accept this and just roll over and go back to our lives when the state gives us garbage for justice, we are headed down the path to decadence and cultural death. We will get more and more of the garbage justice until we expect it and our outrage has dimmed to nothing.

That is where we are already at. We have tens of thousands of proven monsters we pay to take care of in their cells and after they have been returned to our streets, but we as a people have no rage at the evil men and women who are doing this to us.

Injustice is running amok, and it is a direct result of the social banning of any real thirst for vengeance.

fadetogray on May 25, 2014 at 12:21 AM

There Goes the Neighborhood on May 24, 2014 at 2:36 PM

Actually, the way Jazz presents it, he implies that the state of Hawaii has something to do with this and that, because the crime is so horrendous, the Hawaii jury will override the law and impose the death penalty. Couldn’t be farther from the truth.

“What makes this case somewhat unique is the fact that The Aloha State banned capital punishment in 1957, before they even achieved full statehood status. This case, however, may transcend such restrictions because it deals with a former US soldier and a horrific crime which took place on a federal military base.”

There are no such legal restrictions. He’s being tried in federal court. As far as a fear that people in Hawaii will not impose the death penalty because it’s not allowed on the state level, most Hawaiians would have no problem with the death penalty coming back into effect.

Confusing, inaccurate post by Jazz.

NavyMustang on May 25, 2014 at 5:37 AM

This has “Lengthy appeals process,” written all over it, which isn’t so bad because he’s probably going to get the needle in the end, and in the mean time he’s going to have a lot of fun in prison! He might be begging for death before it’s over.

alchemist19 on May 25, 2014 at 1:10 PM

A few points here.

Ordinarily I’m for the death penalty but not this time for for the following reasons:

1 Don’t much like the idea that Army personnel are held to a higher punishment standard than a civilian. I don’t technically know whether the death penalty applies because Williams committed the murder on a military base or whether it was because Williams was on active military duty at the time– or both– but I believe that what is good for the goose is also good for the gander.

2 Sometimes “appearances” are more important than the law. As far as I know (at least not since statehood)Hawaii has never executed anyone. It would be a publicity nightmare for the state’s first (and probably ONLY) execution to be a black man. Even if the death penalty is never carried out (which I can say is 99.99999% certain) the ‘appearance of discrimination” will be present (at least to some.)

3 You can be sure if Williams is ever executed (or even if he is not) the attendant publicity(see reason 2) will be further ammunition for opponents to end ALL death penalties EVERYWHERE.

4 There is a better chance of finding Amelia Earhart alive than of Williams ever actually being executed–especially in a state which has consistently and heavily voted against capital punishment. No way it will ever happen.

The formality of a death sentence never utilized is de facto life imprisonment and a martyr creator. “ROTTEN AND FORGOTTEN” will be the result of a life sentence.

MaiDee on May 25, 2014 at 3:22 PM

Ordinarily I’m for the death penalty but not this time for for the following reasons:

1 Don’t much like the idea that Army personnel are held to a higher punishment standard than a civilian.

MaiDee on May 25, 2014 at 3:22 PM

So, you’re against the death penalty because … Hawaii doesn’t have the death penalty? That’s a bit of circular logic you might want to re-examine. The jurisdiction that will impose the death penalty is not Hawaii.

As far as I know (at least not since statehood)Hawaii has never executed anyone.

Even if this guy is executed, Hawaii still won’t have executed anyone. It will be the federal government that puts him to death.

the attendant publicity(see reason 2) will be further ammunition for opponents to end ALL death penalties EVERYWHERE.

Too late. They already do that. There’s plenty of ammunition all over this country for the hand-wringers.

especially in a state which has consistently and heavily voted against capital punishment.

Again, Hawaii doesn’t have a say in the matter – it’s not their jurisdiction.

Jazz really made a hash of this post.

GWB on May 25, 2014 at 4:45 PM

NavyMustang on May 25, 2014 at 5:37 AM

Two of us have consistently pointed it out, yet there’s still no correction to the bad info. *sigh*

GWB on May 25, 2014 at 4:46 PM

Two of us have consistently pointed it out, yet there’s still no correction to the bad info. *sigh*

GWB on May 25, 2014 at 4:46 PM

It’s a little baffling.

But, the important thing is that this SOB pays a HEAVY price for what he did.

NavyMustang on May 25, 2014 at 5:41 PM

I do understand the logic here. The UCMJ doesn’t call for the death penalty here and the State of Hawaii never calls for the death penalty. The Army passed the buck, at the Feds behest, to civilian federal jurisdiction– the one venue where the death option is still on the table.It sounds like a clever ploy but actually is playing right into the hands of the enemy.In fact, I wouldn’t be surprised if the ones who planned this were not liberals.

By winning a totally meaningless, hollow victory, (IF you get the death verdict) the enemy’s hand has actually been strengthened. Williams stands no more chance of actually being executed than the PFC who shoplifts a bag of potato chips from a Schofield PX. Sad but true.

MaiDee on May 25, 2014 at 7:19 PM

The Left is going to have a tough time with this one:

On the one hand, he’s a U.S. serviceman, so he’s a “baby-killer.”

On the other hand, he’s a baby-killer, so they’re sure to sympathize with that.

It’s gonna be a tough call for them.

DrZin on May 26, 2014 at 10:42 AM

The left will call it a post term abortion and raise money on it.

SansJeux on May 26, 2014 at 3:06 PM