Yet Obama held no illusions about the scale of the challenges he faces, both economic and political. One of those challenges was the overwhelming Republican resistance to his plan, which frustrated his campaign hopes of quickly bridging Washington’s ideological and partisan divides. Obama seemed to split that opposition into several categories. Some of it was ideological: “I think that there were some senators and House members who have a sincere philosophical difference with the idea of any government role in boosting demand in the economy. They don’t believe in [economist John Maynard] Keynes and they are still fighting FDR.” Some was tactical: “I also think that there was a decision made… where [Republican leaders] said… ‘If we can enforce conformity among our ranks, then it will invigorate our base and will potentially give us some political advantage either short-term or long-term.” He paused. “Whether that’s a smart strategy, I think you should ask them.”